Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong

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Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong
晴隆北盘江大桥
Qinglong, Guizhou, China
968 feet high / 295 meters high
1,460 foot span / 445 meter span
2016


The Beipanjiang River is a barrier that seems to require engineers to create world record bridge spans. This tradition began in 2001 when the first record breaking high railway arch crossing took place near Fa’er Bouyei with a rail to river drop of 275 meters. Things have changed a lot in China between 2001 and 2016 and most of the newer railway lines are being designed and built for high speed trains reaching speeds of 250 kilometers an hour.

The massive Beipanjiang River railway arch is not only the world's highest railway bridge at 283 meters if you exclude Najiehe which is over a reservoir, but is also the world's longest concrete arch ever built with a span of 445 meters. The crossing is the crown jewel of bridges on the high speed railway line connecting Guiyang and Kunming. Located north of Qinglong city, the Beipanjiang has always been Guizhou's second greatest river after the Wujiang.

Designed to carry trains that will reach speeds of 250 kilometers an hour, the 721 meter long crossing has a main arch with a rise of 100 meters and a rise to span ratio of 4.45. The arch ring cross section has three cells within a single-box with equal depth of 9 meters and a variable width of 18 to 28 meters. The width of the arch at the springing is 28 meters while the width of the arch at the crown is 18 meters. Double-column framed piers are used for supporting the deck. The piers rise 102 meters at the abutments with the tallest spandrel column on the arch rising 59 meters. Steel tubular trusses filled with concrete were used as a skeleton during construction before it was encased in concrete. The stay cables placed at the abutment pier were post-tensioned step by step during the concrete-pouring to assist the skeleton in load carrying.

The approach bridges are 5.6 +32 +2x65 +4x42 +4x42 +2x65 +2x37 +6.6 meters prestressed concrete continuous beams. The dual line width of unballasted track is 4.6 meters wide and crosses the Beipanjiang River just below the Guangzhao Dam.

The deformation of the arch ring increased gradually as the volume of arch ring concrete increased during the construction process. The maximum deflection was designed to be 294mm after pouring of the arch ring concrete was completed and 383mm after the additional dead load was placed. Because live load accounts for a small proportion of dead load, precamber of the arch ring is designed based on the deformation caused by dead load. At the arch crown, the precamber of 350mm is set, while the cambers of other parts of the arch ring are distributed by quadratic parabola. Under the standard railway live load, the maximum upward vertical deflection is 40.2mm which occurs at the quarter-span section and the maximum downward vertical deflection is 48.8mm which also occurs at the quarter-span section. Under the lateral wind load, the maximum lateral displacement is 52.8mm which occurs at the mid-span section.

The bridge is located at kilometer 882 and cost 430 million Yuan or 66 million dollars. The Beipanjiang Railway Bridge is a sister bridge to the slightly smaller Nanpanjiang Railway Bridge near Qiubei, Yunnan as they were both designed by the same engineering teams with similar designs and construction methods. The major difference between the two spans is the Beipanjiang Bridge arch rib has a depth of 9 meters while the Nanpanjiang arch rib has a depth of 8.5 meters.



Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Elevation


北盘江峡谷是一个巨大的自然障碍,需要工程师不断修建超越世界纪录的桥梁来克服。这一传统开始于2001年,该年一座铁路桥在水城县发耳乡附近跨越北盘江,高达275米,成为当时世界铁路第一高桥。从2001年到2016年间中国发生了巨大变化,今天新建的铁路已大多数是高速铁路,设计时速达250公里/小时以上。 这座巨大的铁路桥将不仅是世界最高的铁路桥梁(如果去掉纳界河大桥的话,纳界河大桥跨越一个水库,尽管到原河面有310米高,它到水库水面仅有259米高),高达295米;而且也是世界主跨最大的钢筋混凝土拱桥,跨度达445米。这座桥是沪昆高铁上的皇冠。位于晴隆县和关岭县之间,跨越北盘江,北盘江是贵州省内仅次于乌江的第二大河流。 设计时速250公里/小时(译者注,这是原设计,现此桥是唯一设计350公里/小时的铁路桥),这座全长721米的拱桥拱圈高度100米,矢跨比1:4.45。拱肋分为三箱。厚度9米,宽度从拱座到桥中心逐步收分,从28米减少到18米,这样做是为了增加稳定性。双柱拱上立柱支撑起桥面。拱座上的交界墩高102米,拱肋上的立柱最高59米。修建此桥时,以钢管作为骨架,其中灌注混凝土,然后再外包钢筋混凝土。钢管骨架安装时由两岸的斜拉索拉住,钢管合龙后拆除斜拉索。 桥面跨径是5.6 +32 +2x65 +4x42 +4x42 +2x65 +2x37 +6.6米的预应力混凝土连续梁。双线铁路无砟轨道之间的宽度是4.6米,位于光照水电站大坝下游。 随着拱圈灌注混凝土和外包混凝土,其受力变形也不断增加。设计的拱圈最大挠度当拱圈混凝土完成时是294mm,当立柱和桥面负荷完成时是383mm。大桥运行后火车的活载仅占大桥总重极小一部分,因此其挠度基本按桥重量设计。桥面中央预留有350mm高度以备建成后下挠,预估建成后桥面最低处将下降40.2mm,在桥的1/4处。当设计最大风速时,桥面水平位移在中心处有52.8mm。 这座桥位于882公里处(从长沙计算),建造费用4.3亿元(6600万美元)。沪昆高铁晴隆北盘江大桥和云桂铁路丘北南盘江大桥是姊妹桥,那座比这座稍小,由同一个团队设计,结构类似,都是钢管混凝土劲性骨架外包钢筋混凝土结构。两桥的主要不同有北盘江大桥拱肋厚9米,南盘江大桥拱肋厚8.5米。






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Image from Tadashi Ashimi.


Image from Tadashi Ashimi.


Image by Han Ruoyu.




The east slope of the Beipanjiang Qinglong Railway arch was covered with an assortment of anchors that will assure the long term stability of the earth. Image by John Hart.


Image by Richard Scott.


Image by Richard Scott.


Image from Tadashi Ashimi.


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Documentary Filming


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The large Guangzhao concrete gravity dam is located just a kilometer upstream of the Beipanjiang Qinglong Railway Bridge. Image by Richard Scott.


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This style of cantenary suspension bridge is popular downstream of dams in Western China. Image by John Hart.


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Image by Damian Kulash Sr.



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Bridge construction supervisor Derek Fu and lead bridge designer Xie Hai Qing. Image by Eric Sakowski / HighestBridges.com


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Image by gz.xinhuanet.


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Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong pier diagram.


Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong abutment diagrams.


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The span of steel tubular truss is 445m. It is longitudinally divided into 40 segments for lifting and the length of each segment is 12m. The truss is made of the upper and lower chords of 8 steel tubes with a diameter of 750mm and a thickness of 24mm.Image by Eric Sakowski / HighestBridges.com


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Map of Shanghai-Kunming High Speed Railway line.


Image by ldqxn.com.


The canyon before construction began.

















Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Proposals

A number of bridge designs were studied for the Beipanjiang High Speed Railway Bridge. Three locations were considered for the crossing including the middle route that was eventually chosen. All 7 proposals shown below are for the middle route but the heights vary between 230 meters for a smaller concrete arch to a giant suspension bridge 405 meters high.


Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Strut Proposal - 230 meters high



Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Suspension Proposal - 405 meters high



Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Truss Arch Proposal - 290 meters high



Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Cable Stayed Proposal - 290 meters high



Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Proposal - 290 meters high



Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Through Arch Proposal - 290 meters high



Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong Low Concrete Arch Proposal - 230 meters high


Map showing the 3 crossings studied.


Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong satellite image.


Beipanjiang Railway Bridge Qinglong location map.

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